Trademark Law and Systems Globally

A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks are protected by intellectual property rights. At the national/regional level, trademark protection can be obtained through registration, by filing an application for registration with the national/regional trademark office and paying the required fees. At the international level, you have two options: either you can file a trademark application with the trademark office of each country in which you are seeking protection, or you can use WIPO’s Madrid System. In the U.S., rights can also arise upon use in commerce under both federal and state common law. In principle, a trademark registration will confer an exclusive right to the use of the registered trademark. This implies that the trademark can be exclusively used by its owner, or licensed to another party for use in return for payment. Registration provides legal certainty and reinforces the position of the right holder, for example, in case of litigation.  The term of trademark registration can vary globally. It can be renewed indefinitely on payment of additional fees. Trademark rights are private rights and protection is enforced through court orders. A word or a combination of words, letters, and numerals can perfectly constitute a trademark. But trademarks may also consist of drawings, symbols, three-dimensional features such as the shape and packaging of goods, non-visible signs such as sounds or fragrances, or color shades used as distinguishing features – the possibilities are almost limitless. WIPO


Decisions of the Commissioner - U.S. Patent and Trademark Office USPTO

Trademark Examination Guides, Notes and AnnouncementsTrademark

Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) Final Decision Archive 1992Trademark
Trial & Appeal Board Decisions

LIPA Trademark Acts ArchiveLIPA
Acts Archive