RECORDATION OF TRANSFERS
OTHER DOCUMENTS PERTAINING TO A COPYRIGHT
1601 Applicability of this chapter. This chapter contains
the requirements for the recordation of transfers and
other documents pertaining to a copyright under 17
U.S.C. 205, and the termination of transfers and
licenses granted by the author covering the extended
renewal term under 17 U.S.C. 304(c).The practices
concerning the filing or recordation of the following
documents are not included either in this chapter or
elsewhere in Compendium II, and requirements other than
those in this chapter may apply.
1) Certain contracts entered into by cable systems
located outside of the 48 contiguous states. See
17 U.S.C. 111(e) and 37 C.F.R. 201.12.
2) Notices of Identity and Signal Carriage
Complement, and Statements of Account of cable
systems. See 17 U.S.C. 111(d) and 37 C.F.R.
201.11 and 201.17.
3) Original, signed notices of intention to obtain
compulsory license to make and distribute
phonorecords of nondramatic musical works. See 17
U.S.C.115 (b) and 37 C.F.R. 201.18.
4) License agreements, and terms and rates of royalty
payments, voluntarily negotiated between one or
more public broadcasting entities and certain
owners of copyright. See 17 U.S.C. 118 and 37
5) Statements regarding the identity of authors of
anonymous and pseudonymous works, and statements
relating to the death of authors. See 17 U.S.C.
6) Notices of intent to enforce [NIE's] filed under
the URAA. See 17 U.S.C. 104A, 109(b), Chapter 11,
and 37 C.F.R. 201.33.
1602 Statutory provisions relating to transfers and other
documents pertaining to a copyright. The following are
the principal statutory provisions relating to
transfers and other documents pertaining to a
1602 Statutory Provisions relating to transfers and other
documents pertaining to a copyright. (cont'd)
1602.01 Execution of transfers of copyright ownership. A
transfer of copyright ownership, other than by
operation of law, is not valid unless an
instrument of conveyance, or a note or memorandum
of the transfer, is in writing and signed by the
owner of the rights conveyed or such owner's duly
authorized agent. 17 U.S.C. 204.
1602.02 Recordation of transfers and other documents:
conditions for recordation. Any transfer of
copyright ownership or other document pertaining
to a copyright may be recorded in the Copyright
Office if the document filed for recordation bears
the actual signature of the person who executed
it, or if it is accompanied by a sworn or official
certification that it is a true copy of the
original, signed document. 17 U.S.C. 205(a) .
1603 Copyright Office Policy. The Copyright Office will not
attempt to judge the legal sufficiency or interpret the
substantive contents of a purported transfer or other
document. A document will be verified to determine
whether the requirements for recordation have been met.
1603.01 Transfers: If the document purports to be a
transfer of a copyright and is signed by the owner
of the rights conveyed, the owner's authorized
agent, or one entitled to make the transfer, it
will be indexed as a "transfer".
1603.02 Other documents pertaining to a copyright. Any
other document, including a self-serving
declaration, an abandonment of copyright,
bankruptcy papers, and the like, will be recorded
in the Copyright Office, if it pertains to a
copyright. A document shall be considered to
"pertain to a copyright" if it has a direct or
indirect relationship to the existence, scope,
duration, or identification of a copyright, or to
the ownership, division, allocation, licensing,
transfer, or exercise of rights under a copyright.
That relationship may be past, present, future, or
See 37 C.F.R. 201.4.
1603.03 When recordation suggested. The Copyright Office
may point out the recordation provisions of the
law and the possibility of recording an
1603 Copyright Office policy. (cont'd)
1603.03 When recordation suggested. (cont'd)
An application for registration is submitted
where a claim in the same work has already
been registered in the name of the prior
owner of copyright. When the second
registration is sought to reflect the change
of ownership, the Copyright Office will
refuse to make a second registration, but
will point out the possibility of reflecting
the change in ownership by recording the
instrument of transfer.
1604 The nature of the document. A document may be
questioned by the Copyright Office when there is no
indication of any direct or indirect relationship to a
A bill of lading referring to a shipment of motion
1604.01 Recordation not a substitute for registration. A
document may be recorded even if a claim to
copyright in the work to which it refers has not
been registered for copyright.
1604.02 Relationship between document and copyright
unclear. Where the relationship between the
document to be recorded and a potential copyright
claim is unclear or obscure, the Office may
clarify that recordation is in no case a
substitute for copyright registration. Similarly,
a registration is not a substitute for
1604.03 Document apparently submitted in error. Where it
seems probable that the document has been
submitted to the Copyright Office in error, it may
be questioned or, in clear cases, returned without
An assignment of rights limited to a
trademark or patent.
1605 Document Cover Sheet Processing.
Cases submitted with a document cover sheet will be
processed and verified in the same manner as a document
submitted without a cover sheet. Neither category of
document will receive priority processing.
1606 Practices for processing documents.
1606.01 Formal sufficiency of document. In order to be
regarded as a "transfer," a document must
generally meet the following formal requirements:
1) It must be "an instrument in writing."
2) It must be signed by the owner of the rights
conveyed or by such owner's duly authorized
3) It must identify the transferor and
4) It must contain words of conveyance.
5) It must be complete by its own terms.
1606.02 Instrument in writing. To be recordable, the
instrument must be in writing. The Copyright
Office does not provide, suggest, or require any
special form for the transfer of a copyright or
other document pertaining to a copyright that is
recorded under Section 205. Any type of legible
document which meets the other formal requirements
will be accepted for recordation, if it contains
an individual's actual signature or an acceptable
alternative. See 1606.03 and 1606.08 below.
1) Handwritten or typewritten original.
2) Transfer in the form of a letter; [note that
the letter should not be addressed to the
3) Carbon of original.
4) Printed original.
1606.03 Actual signature. To be recordable, the document
must bear the actual signature or signatures of
the person or persons who executed it.
Alternatively, the document may be recorded if it
is a legible photocopy or other full-size
facsimile reproduction of the signed document,
1606 Practices for processing documents. (cont'd)
1606.03 Actual signature. (cont'd)
accompanied by a sworn certification or an
official certification that the reproduction is a
true copy of the signed document. Any sworn
certification accompanying a reproduction must be
signed by at least one of the persons who executed
the document, or by an authorized representative
of that person. See 17 U.S.C. 205 and 37 C.F.R.
201.4(c) (1) .
1606.03(a) Sworn certification or declaration. A "sworn
certification" is an affidavit under the
official seal of any officer authorized to
administer oaths within the United States, or
if the original is located outside of the
United States, under the official seal of any
diplomatic or consular officer of the United
States or of a person authorized to
administer oaths whose authority is proved by
the certificate of such an officer, or by a
statement given "under penalty of perjury".
See 28 U.S.C. 1746. 37 C.F.R.
201.4(a) (3) (i) .An alternative to a
notarized certification is a declaration
under penalty of perjury that the
accompanying document is a true and correct
copy of the original. See 28 U.S.C. 1746.
1606.03(b) Official certification. An "official
certification" is a certification, by the
appropriate Government official, that the
original of the document is on file in a
public office and that the reproduction is a
true copy of the original. See 37 C.F.R.
201.4(a) (3) (ii) .
1) Copy of a certificate of corporate
merger, bearing the certification of the
Secretary of State.
2) Court decree establishing a change of
name of a person, certified by the clerk
of the court.
1606.04 Illegible document. An illegible document or one
which cannot be reproduced legibly will not be
accepted for recordation. See 37 C.F.R.
1606 Practices for processing documents. (cont'd)
1606.05 Signature of transferor. (cont'd)
1606.05(a) Unsigned document. As a rule, the document
to be recorded should contain the actual
handwritten signature of the person executing
the document or of such person's duly
authorized agent. See 37 C.F.R. 201.4(c) (1) .
An unsigned document will be returned for
signature before recordation.
1606.05(b) Multi-party instrument. If a number of
transferors are identified in the body of the
document, and spaces have been provided for
the signatures of all of them, the document
will be questioned if any of the signatures
is missing, unless an additional copy of the
document containing the missing signatures is
submitted for recordation at the same time.
Each such instrument of transfer is indexed
only under the particular signatures it
1606.06 Apparent inconsistency. Reconcilable variance
between names: indexing. When there is a
reconcilable variance between the signature on the
document and the name of the transferor appearing
in the body of the document, the instrument will
generally be indexed under what is determined to
be the fullest form of the legal name. The
document will generally not be indexed under the
name of the agent or official of a corporation or
other impersonal legal entity. Where the document
has been signed by a legal representative or
attorney-in-fact, it will be indexed under the
name of the person whom the signer represents.
1606.07 Signature of individual. As a rule, the signature
should be the actual handwritten signature of an
individual person, and should give the
individual's own name rather than that of the
person or organization he or she may represent.
1) A pencil signature is acceptable.
2) A hand-printed signature is acceptable.
3) A printed, typewritten, rubber-stamped, or
facsimile signature will be questioned.
1606 Practices for processing documents. (cont'd)
1606.07 Signature of individual. (cont'd)
4) A person's mark is acceptable if accompanied
by another person's signature attesting to
5) The signature need not be legible or include
the full name of the signer if the name is
sufficiently identified elsewhere in the
document; but initials or a monogram will
generally not be regarded as a signature.
1607 Identification of parties. In general, any document
purporting to transfer a copyright or rights under a
copyright should clearly identify the transferee as
well as the transferor.
1607.01 Failure to identify necessary parties. Documents
which do not identify the necessary parties will
be questioned, but recordation will not be refused
if, following correspondence, the sender continues
.to request recordation.
1) "I, John Doe, do hereby assign all rights,
including copyright, in the work entitled HOW
TO BURN TOAST." (Transferee not named) .
2) " ..copyright for the work 'How to Excel
in the Practice of Law,' is hereby assigned
to Richard Roe, as Executor of the author
" (The author not identified by
1607.02 Indexing. When a document which does not identify
the necessary parties is recorded, it will be
indexed only under the names it contains; no
indexing will be done under other names furnished
in correspondence or elsewhere. See section
1607.03 One-party documents. A document which necessarily
involves only one party (~.g., an affidavit) will
be indexed under the single name involved.
1608 Constructive Notice. Recordation of a document gives
all persons constructive notice of the facts stated in
the recorded document, if the work has been registered
and the material to which the document pertains is
identified. See 17 U.S.C. 205(c) .
1608 Constructive Notice. (cont'd)
1608.01 The document, or material attached to it, must
identify the work to which it pertains so that,
after the document is indexed by the Copyright
Office, it would be revealed by a reasonable
search under the title or registration
number of the work.
1608.02 Failure to identify work. A document which does
not identify the work will ~ be questioned.
If the material which is the subject of the
document is otherwise adequately identified but
does not contain the title, it will not be
A document covering "an unpublished novel
about New York's Empire State Building, by
Jack Douglas." Note: this document will not
receive constructive notice.
1608.03 Outside sources. A document will be indexed only
under the titles or other identifying matter it
1609 Completeness of document. In general, a document will
not be recorded unless it is complete by its own terms.
1609.01 Attachments. A document that contains a reference
to any schedule, appendix, exhibit, addendum, or
other material as being attached to the document
or made a part of it shall be recordable only if
the attachment is also submitted for recordation
with the document or if the reference is deleted
by the parties to the document.
1609.01(a) Document returned for amendment. If a
document has been submitted for recordation
and has been returned by the Copyright Office
at the request of the sender for deletion of
the reference to an attachment, the document
will be recorded only if the deletion is
signed or initialed by the person(s) who
executed the document or by that person's
1609.01(b) Exception. A document containing a reference
to an attachment will be recorded without the
attached material and without deletion of the
reference if the sender asserts in writing
1609 Completeness of document. (cont'd)
1609.01 Attachments. (cont'd)
1609.01(b) Exception. (cont'd)
that all three of the following factors exist
and specifically requests that the document
be recorded as submitted: (1) the attachment
is completely unavailable for recordation;
and (2) the attachment is not essential to
identify the subject matter of the document;
and (3) it would be impossible or wholly
impractical to have the parties to the
document sign or initial a deletion of the
reference. In such cases, the Copyright
Office record of the document will be
annotated to show that recordation was made
in response to a specific request.
See 37 C.F.R. 20l.4(c) (2) .
1610 Incorporation by reference. When the document
submitted for recordation merely identifies or
incorporates by reference another document, or certain
terms of another document, the Copyright Office will
not question its completeness. 37 C.F.R.
201.4 (c) (2) (iii) .
A document reads in part as follows: "In
accordance with the terms of mutual undertaking
previously entered into between the parties on
January 2, 1978, which is incorporated by
reference herewith, John Doe hereby transfers. .."
1611 Part of a larger document. A document that is
otherwise recordable which indicates on its face that
it is a self-contained part of a larger document, will
be recorded without question. See 37 C.F.R.
204(c) (2) (ii) .
The document is marked "Attachment A" or "Exhibit
1612 Additional Practices. As a rule, no attempt is made to
verify the facts stated in the document submitted for
recordation. Titles, registration numbers, authors,
dates, and the like are transcribed without checking
1612 Additional Practices. (cont'd)
1612.01 Minor Topographical Errors. Where a minor
typographical error appears in the document, the
document will be indexed under the correct name or
1) "Great Russian Short Stories"
2) "Macame Du Barry"
1612.02 Date of execution. A document should contain the
complete date on which it was executed. If the
complete date is not given, the catalog record
will reflect as much information as is given. 17
U.S.C. 205 provides that in the case of
conflicting documents, statutory priority is given
to transfers recorded within one month of
execution in the United States or two months after
execution outside the United States or the one
1613 Documents to correct or amplify Copyright Office
records. In most cases, a supplementary registration
should be submitted to correct or amplify a completed
Copyright Office registration. However, if the sender
insists, the Office will accept for recordation a
document giving the pertinent information. For
detailed practices in this connection, see Chapter
1500: CORRECTIONS AND AMPLIFICATIONS OF COPYRIGHT
OFFICE RECORDS; SUPPLEMENTARY REGISTRATIONS.
1614 Certificate of. acknowledgment. A certificate of
acknowledgment is not required for the validity of a
transfer, but is prima facie evidence of the execution
of the transfer if:
1) In the case of a transfer executed in the United
States, the certificate is issued by a person
authorized to administer oaths within the United
2) In the case of a transfer executed in a foreign
country, the certificate is issued by a diplomatic
or consular officer of the United States, or by a
person authorized to administer oaths whose
authority is proved by a certificate of such an
See 17 U.S.C. 204(b).
1615 Recordation. In general, the recordation procedure
includes initial verification of documents and document
cover sheets, determination of the recording fee,
assigning identifying volume, document and page
numbers, imaging the document and cover sheet, if any,
preparing an index entry under the appropriate names
and titles, and returning the recorded document with a
certificate of record.
1615.01 Date of recordation. The date of recordation is
the date upon which an acceptable document and
required fee are received in the Copyright Office.
See 37 C.F.R. 201.4.
1615.01(a) Document returned for correction. When a
document is returned to the sender for
correction, the date on which the corrected
document is received in the Copyright Office
is regarded as the date of recordation.
1615.01(b) Less than entire fee received. When less
than the required fee is received in the
Copyright Office, the date of recordation is
the date on which the amount of the total
required fee is received in the Copyright
If a document containing three titles is
received in recordable form, together
with only the fee for recording one
title, the date of recordation is the
date on which the fee covering the
additional titles is received in the
1615.02 Indexing. A recorded document is indexed under
the names of the parties and the titles listed in
the document. The catalog entry also contains the
date of recordation, the date of execution if
given in the document, and the volume and document
numbers assigned to the document.
1615.03 Amendments in document submitted for recordation.
The Copyright Office will not make any changes or
corrections in a document submitted for
recordation, even when specifically requested or
authorized to do so by the sender.
1615 Recordation. (cont'd)
1615.03 Amendments in document submitted for recordation.
(cont I d)
Sender requests Copyright Office to change
the year date of execution from "1968" to
1615.04 Recordable document returned. When a request to
return or change the document is received from the
sender, if the Office has not yet assigned a
volume and document number, it may return the
document to the sender, suggesting that any change
be initialed by the persons who executed it. In
such cases the date the returned document is
received in the Copyright Office will be the date
1615.05 Recording fees. A basic recording fee is charged
for a single document of any length covering no
more than one title. An additional fee is charged
for each group of 10 or fewer titles. For
specific fee amounts, see 17 U.S.C. 708; see also
37 C.F.R. 201.4(d) .
1615.06 Separate transfers. A fee is required for each
separate transfer or other document, even if two
or more transactions or documents appear on the
same page. 37 C.F.R. 201.4(d) (1) .
1) "A" hereby transfers all right, title, and
interest in a musical composition to "B,"
"C", and "D". This is a single transfer for
the purpose of computing the recordation fee.
2) On a single page, but in separate paragraphs:
"A" hereby transfers a one-third interest in
the copyright in a musical composition to
"B". "A" hereby transfers a one-third
interest in the copyright in the same musical
composition to "C". "A" hereby transfers a
one-third interest in the copyright in the
same musical composition to "D". The
document is signed once. This is a single
transfer for the purpose of computing the
1615 Recordation. (cont'd)
1615.06 Separate transfers. (cont'd)
3) The same situation as in example 2 above, but
the document is dated and signed by both
parties at each paragraph setting out the
separate conveyances. This would be regarded
as three transfers for the purpose of
computing the recordation fee.
4) On a single page: "A" transfers the copyright
to "B" who transfers a portion of that right
to "C." This would be regarded as two
transfers for the purpose of computing the
1615.07 Titles. The term "title" for the purpose of
computing the fee for recordation generally
denotes "appellation" or "denomination, " rather
than "registration, " "work, " or "copyright." 37
C.F.R. 201.4(d) (2) .
1615.07(a) Each Title Counted. Generally, each title
listed in a document is counted, but
designations referring to uncopyrightable
matter are not counted.
1) A trademark consisting of the word "EKSRON."
2) A mechanical patent designated as "Process
for the Impacting of Crushed Marble."
1615.07(b) Single and multiple titles distinguished. A
single title that is repeated is counted as a
single "title" for the purpose of computing
the fee. However, when multiple issues or
numbers of a serial, or different chapters or
installments are contained in a document,
each will be indexed and therefore each is
considered to be an individual title for
which a separate fee is charged.
Examples of multiple titles:
1) "Fan Club News, " vol. 1, no.3 (June
"Fan Club News, " vol. 1, no.4 (July
"Fan Club News, " vol. 1, no.5 (Aug.
1615 Recordation. (cont'd)
1615.07 Titles. (cont'd)
1615.07(b) Single and multiple titles distinguished.
(cont I d)
2) "Trapped in the Snack Bar," Installment
"Trapped in the Snack Bar," Installment
1615.07(c) Translation. When a work is listed under a
title which could be characterized as a
translation, the original title and the
translation will each be counted separately
for the purpose of computing the recordation
"On the Water (Auf dem Wasser) II
1615.07(d) Same title repeated with descriptive matter
indicating multiple works or versions. Where
the same title is repeated more than once in
the same document, but the repetitions are
followed by different descriptive matter,
subtitles, names of authors, or the like,
indicating different works or different
versions, separate fees will be charged.
Examples of two titles:
1) "Rondo" (Massenet)
2) "You Are the One" (from Summer Romance)
"You Are the One" (from Sunny Days)
1615.07(e) Descriptive material. When a work is listed
under a title followed by descriptive matter
further describing that single title, only
one fee is charged.
"You Are the One" (Romantic Song)
1615.07(f) Alternative titles. Where a work is clearly
listed under alternative titles, or where
both old and new titles are clearly
indicated, separate fees will be charged.
Use of the conjunctive "or" will not
1615.07(f) Alternative titles. (cont'd)
generally be treated as denoting alternative
Example of one title:
"How to Get Ahead in Life or Ten Ways to
Improve Your Memory"
Examples of two titles:
1) "Money Isn't Everything," also known as
"Who Wants to Be Rich?"
2) "Cafe Tales," formerly known as "Draw
1615.07(g) Additional fees for title indexing. In cases
where, under the practices set forth above, a
listing is considered to be a single title
for purposes of computing the fee, the
Copyright Office will nevertheless index the
title variations separately, upon the
specific request of the sender and payment of
any additional fees normally required for
1616 Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the
author under the extended renewal term. The following
are the practices and provisions relating to the
termination of transfers and licenses granted by the
author under the extended renewal term.
1616.01 Statutory Provision. For any work in its first or
renewal term on January 1, 1978, other than a work
made for hire, the statute provides for the
possibility of termination of any exclusive or
nonexclusive grant of a transfer or license of the
renewal copyright or any right under it, executed
before January 1, 1978, other than by will, by the
author or by the successors in interest of the
author. See 17 U.S.C. 304(a) (1) (c); (c) .
1616.02 Time limits. Termination of the grant may be
effected at any time during a period of five years
beginning at the end of 56 years from the date
copyright was originally secured, or beginning on
January 1, 1978, whichever is later. See 17
U.S.C. 304(c) (3) .
1616.03 Contents of Notice. The contents of the notice of
termination are set forth in regulation 37 C.F.R.
§201.10(b) .The Copyright Office records notices
of termination received in the Office before the
1616.03 Contents of Notice. (cont'd)
effective date of termination.
1616.04 Copyright Office Policy. The Copyright Office
will not examine the legal sufficiency or
interpret the substantive contents of a purported
termination. A notice of termination will be
verified to determine whether certain requirements
for recordation as a termination have been met.
1616.05 Notice Must Be Complete. A notice of termination
must contain a complete and unambiguous statement
of facts without incorporation by reference of
information in other documents or records. See 37
C.F.R. 201.10(b) .
1616.06 Exact Duplicate of the Notice of Termination. The
copy submitted for recordation should be a
complete and exact duplicate of the notice of
termination as served.
1616.07 Signature. A notice of termination should contain
the actual signature or a reproduction of the
actual signature of the person or persons
identified in the document as being entitled to
exercise the right of termination, or of a duly
authorized agent of such person or persons. See
37 C.F.R. 201.10(c) (1) for other signature
l616.07(a) Termination of grant executed by duly
authorized agent. Where a signature is that
of a duly authorized agent, it shall clearly
identify the person or persons on whose
behalf the agent is acting. 37 C.F.R.
1616.07(b) Additional requirements. The handwritten
signature of each person effecting the
termination shall either be accompanied by a
statement of the full name and address of
that person, typewritten or printed legibly
by hand, or shall clearly correspond to such
a statement elsewhere in the notice. 37
C.F.R. 201.10(c) (4) .
1616.07(c) Persons not entitled to terminate. Where the
Copyright Office is aware that the signature
appearing on the document is different from
the person named as the one terminating a
right, the Office will notify the sender that
it cannot record the document as a
termination of transfer unless the signature
is that of a duly authorized agent.
1616.08 Legibility of notice of termination. The notice
of termination must be in writing and capable of
being imaged or reproduced legibly on microfilm.
An illegible notice will be returned to the sender
1616.09 Date and manner of service. The document
submitted for recordation should be accompanied by
a statement setting forth the date on which the
notice was served and the manner of service,
unless such information is contained in the
notice. Where such information is not contained
in the notice, and the document is not accompanied
by a statement setting forth the date and/or
manner of service, the Copyright Office will
request that the sender submit a separate
statement containing this information. This
statement must be received in the Office within
the designated filing period. It will be attached
to the document and will be recorded by the
1616.10 Recordation. The Copyright Office will not refuse
to record a document that fails to meet the
requirements discussed in section 1616 above, but
such document will not be indexed by the Copyright
Office as a notice of termination.
1616.11 Recordation without prejudice. Recordation of a
notice of termination by the Copyright Office is
without prejudice to any party claiming that the
legal and formal requirements for issuing a valid
notice have not been met. 37 C.F.R. 201.10(f) (4) .
1616.12 Photocopied Notices of Termination. Any notice of
termination submitted in photocopied form will be
accepted without an accompanying certification
provided that it meets the requirements of Section
1616.13 Date of recordation. To be effective, a copy of
the notice must be recorded in the Copyright
Office before the effective date of termination.
See 17 U.S.C. 304(c) (4) (A) .The date of
recordation is the date when all of the elements
required for recordation, including the prescribed
fee and, if required, the statement setting forth
the date on which the notice was served and the
manner of service, have been received in the
Copyright Office. After recordation, the
document, including any accompanying statement, is
returned to the sender with a certificate of
record. See 37 C.F.R. 201.10(f) (3) .
1617 Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the
author on or after January 11 1978. The practices set
forth in section 1616 above are restricted to
terminations under the extended renewal term provided
in section 304(c) of the current Act. Practices
regarding the parallel statutory provision governing
termination of grants executed by the author on or
after January 1, 1978, under section 203 of the current
Act, have not been established yet because the right of
termination there under cannot be invoked in an
appropriate termination document until the year 2003 or
later. A document that purports to terminate a grant
executed on or after January 1, 1978, may be recorded,
but such document will not be indexed by the Copyright
Office as a notice of termination.
[END OF CHAPTER 1600]